HVAC stands for Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning which provides heating and cooling functions for designated spaces. In general, the HVAC system moves the air between indoor and outdoor areas. For instance, the warm air is moved either into the inner space or the outer space in order to adjust to the optimal comfort level of temperature. Furthermore, HVAC also aids in the ventilation system which filters and cleans the indoor air through the exchange of airs. It further controls the indoor humidity conditions to allow occupants to have the benefits from ideal temperature along with humidity levels.
There are several types of conventional HVAC systems widely used today.
Room coolers refer to the window and split-type air conditioning system. The evaporative cooling system is involved, which basically evaporates the water for cooling the air. The warm outdoor air is passed through an evaporating media, usually the cooling pads. Afterwards, the heat is removed from the air which generates the cool air.
Split air-conditioning system comprises two different units, the outdoor and indoor units. The units are referred to as condensing unit and air handling unit which are connected to each other via refrigerant lines. For most of the time, the handling unit is installed indoors while the condensing unit is installed outdoors. Within the system, the gas refrigerant is basically pumped through the cooling units and adjusts the air temperatures.
Centralized air-conditioning system involves the central location where the air is being cooled down, and is distributed to and from rooms. For most of the time, a furnace or air handler fan is used to draw the warm air. Afterwards, the heat is removed from the air and absorbed by the refrigerant coil. The refrigerant is pumped to the condenser again, and the same process repeats.
A smart HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning) system involves automated controls and provides enhanced equipment. Basically, the advancements on HVAC offer various benefits such as improved air quality, energy efficiency, energy savings, cost reduction, and remote access. The substantial advantage is that through the use of smart HVAC, people are provided with comfortable environments. The smart HVAC system incorporates various technologies as well.
The temperature sensor measures water and air temperatures. Basically, the current temperatures are adjusted toward a set point within the system. Further, the data from the sensor also offers room airflow and air quality. The major benefit is that the sensor restricts the system to operate to the rat in which building requires. This leads to the prevention of energy waste due to energy efficiency, and brings optimal comfort within the building.
The pressure sensor measures the pressure levels within certain zones, and alerts the system if maintenance or replacement is required. For instance, the sensor measures high or low pressures in air and water, and alerts the system once the abnormality is detected. It is usually applied to air quality monitoring systems or VAV (variable air volume) control systems.
The Co2 sensor measures the air composition in the ventilation system in order to monitor the whole HVAC system. The Co2 is measured for monitor and control IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) as well. The measurement of Co2 concentration within the building also aids in ensuring health and safety of occupants along with energy efficiency.
The occupancy sensor provides the information to an automated system regarding the presence of occupants within the building or specified area. For instance, with the presence of an occupant, the sensors detect the motion and turn on the light automatically. For HVAC systems, under the presence of an occupant, the system adjusts the temperatures or ventilations to the set point.
The variable speed fan is one of the compressor types in air conditioning or heating pump systems. It runs at different speeds to control the flow of air within the designated space or area. Through the use of variable speed fans, the HVAC system is able to respond to temperature increases or decreases by gradually changing the fan speed. This allows the HVAC system to keep the room temperature at consistent levels.